PLANT A TREE:


Take a new resolution on coming June 5th to save the trees.

 

NON-CHEMICAL CONTROL OF PESTS OF VEGETABLES (Ad hoc recommendations)

The American serpentine leaf miner is a recently introduced polyphagous pest infesting crops like cucurbits, brinjal, cowpea, sesame, groundnut and ornamentals. Larvae mine into the leaves and exhibitirregular serpentine like lines. As a result of the attack, leaves dry up and cause extensive damage. Spray neem oil emulsion for controlling the pest. Amaranth leaf webber and grasshopper, okra leaf roller, epilachna beetle on brinjal and bitter gourd, aphids, jassids and mealy bugs on brinjal and okra can be controlled by 4% leaf extracts of neem / thevetia / clerodendron with soap water.Okra fruits can be protected from infestation by fruit borers by spraying. 4% leaf extracts of thevetia / neem.Preparation of plant extract emul$ion. Soak 400 g of leaf powder (leaves dried under shade and powdered) in one litre of water for 24 hours and filter though muslin cloth. Dissolve 400 g of ordinary bar soap shavings in 91itres of water. Pour this soap solution to the plant extract and mix thoroughly. This forms 4% emulsion of plant extract.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TREE

 

World Environment Day, commemorated on 5 June since 1972, is one of the ways in which the United Nations focuses world attention on the environment and encourages political action. Since its inception, hundreds of thousands of people from countries all over the world have mobilized for individual and organized environmental action. Activities involve all sectors of society – governments, non- and inter-governmental organizations, businesses, industries, civil society, media and schools.

 

This year’s theme is “Forests:Nature at your Service". It closely raise awareness of the vital importance of the millions of species that inhabit our planet’s soils, forests, oceans, coral reefs and mountains. These complex intertwined systems and processes collectively provide our food, water and the air we breathe – the basic fundamentals of life. Biodiversity is also the foundation for agriculture and, together, both are crucial for maintaining and improving food security.

 

It’s an opportunity to do something great for our country, your health and your planet. Take a new resolution on coming June 5th to save the trees. www.nysonsunny.com is promoting this effort by completely developed this website by using Green Theme. A special webpage demonstrating  the importance of planting Trees and schedules of World Environment Day activities were also included for online web awareness to the world.

 

  •  REASONS TO PLANT A TREE

    TREES CLEAN THE AIR:

  • Trees help cleanse the air by intercepting airborne particles, reducing heat, and absorbing pollutants such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.


  • TREES ARE EFFECTIVE SOUND BARRIERS:

  •  Trees are as effective as stonewalls in stopping sound. They muffle urban noise almost as effectively as stonewalls. Trees, planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house, can mitigate major noises from crowded roads, railway stations and airports.


  • TREES PRODUCE OXYGEN:

  •  A mature leafy tree, in a few months, produces as much oxygen as that required by 10 people for one year.


  • TREES BECOME DUSTBINS FOR HARMFUL GASES:

  • A tree absorbs and locks away carbon dioxide, and other harmful gases which warm the environment. An urban forest is a carbon storage area that can lock up as much carbon.


  • TREES SHADE AND COOL:

  •  Shade from trees reduces the need for fan, coolers and air conditioning in summer. Studies have shown that parts of cities without cooling shade from trees can literally be "heated islands," with temperatures as much as 4-6 degrees Celsius higher than surrounding areas. In winter, trees break the force of winter winds.


  • TREES ACT AS WINDBREAKS:

  • Trees break the force of the wind. This protects houses, farmland and vegetation.


  • TREES FIGHT SOIL EROSION:

  • Trees fight soil erosion, conserve rainwater, and reduce water runoff and sediment deposit after storms.


  • TREES CONTROL DUST LEVELS:

  •  Trees help in lowering the dust levels and pollution levels in the cities.


  • TREES DECREASE RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS:

  •  Children staying in areas and localities with trees have much less breathing problems that children staying in localities which have no trees.

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  • COOL SEASON VEGETABLES (Ad hoc recommendation)

Common name Malayalam name Botanical name Family
Cabbage Muttakose Brassica oleracea var capitata Brassicaceae
Cauliflower Cauliflower Brassica oieracea var botrytis Brassicaceae
Carrot Carrot Daucus carota Apiaceae
Beet root Beet root Beta vulgaris Chenopodiaceae
Tomato Thakkali Lycopersicum esculentum Solanacceae
Brinjal Vazhuthana Solanum melongena Solanacceae
Chilli Mulaku Capsicum annum Soianacceae
Amaranthus Cheers Amaranthus spp, Amaranthaceae
Okra Venda Abelmoschus Malvaceae
Bitter gourd Paval Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae
Bottle gourd Churakka Lagenaria siceraria Cucurbitaceae
Snake gourd Padavalam Trichosanthes anguina Cucurbitaceae
Ridge gourd Peechanga Luffa acutangula Cucurbitaceae
Ash gourd Kumbalam Benincasa hispida Cucurbitaceae
Littie gourd Koval Coccinia grandis Cucurbitaceae
Sword bean Valaringa Canavalia gladiate Fabaceae
French bean Beans Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae
Indian bean Amara Lablab purpureus Fabaceae
Drumstick Muringa Moringa oleifera Moringaceae
Musk melon Thalkumbalam Cucumis melo Cucurbitaceae
Onion Ulli Allium cepe Lilliaceae
Pumpkin Mathan Cucurbita moschata Cucurbitaceae
Red pumpkin Vellarimathan Cucurbita maxima Cucurbitaceae

 

1. CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea vaT. capitata)

 

Cabbage can be grown in high ranges during winter season. Well-drained sandy loamto clay loam soil is suited for this crop.

 

Varieties:

September, Pusa Drum Head, Golden Acre, Kaveri, Ganga, Sri Ganesh and Pride of India.

 

Planting requirements:

Since it is a cool season crop, sowing is done from August-November. Seed rate is 500- 750 g/ha. Seeds are to be sown in nursery beds. Three to five weeks old seedlings are used for transplanting. Field is prepared by three or four ploughings. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 45 x 45 em.

 

Manures and fertilizer:

Apply 25 t/ha FYM or compost. Fertilizer dose is N:P2Os:K2O 150:100:125 kg/ha.Apply full dose of P2Os and half dose of N and K2O before, transplanting. Apply remaining half dose one month after transplanting.

 

After cultivation:

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper development of heads. Very shallow hoeing should be done to remove weeds and to make the soil better aerated. In order to produce large heads; earth up plants one month after transplanting.

 

2. CAULIFLOWER (Brassica oleracea vaT. botrytis)

 

Cauliflower can be grown during winter in high ranges. Well-drained sandy loam to clay loam soils are suited for the crop.

 

Varieties:

Pusa Early Synthetic, Himani, Swathi, Pusa Deepali, Early Patna,-74-6-C

 

Planting requirements:

Since it is a cool season crop, sowing is to be done from Aug-Nov. Seed rate is 600-750 glha. Seeds are to be sown in nursery beds. Three to five week old seedlings are used for transplanting. Field is prepared by

three or four ploughings. Seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 60 x 45 cm.

 

Manures and fertilizers:

Apply FYM or compost @ 25 t/ha and fertilizers @ 150:100:125 N:P20S:K2O kg/ha. Apply full dose of P2Os and half dose of N and K2O before transplanting and remaining N and K one month after transplanting.

 

After cultivation:

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper dev.elopment of curds. Very shallow hoeing should be done to remove the weeds and to loosen the soil for better aeration. In order to produce large curds,

earth up the plant one month after trans planting.

 

3. CARROT (Daucus carota)

 

Carrot can be grown in high ranges from August to January. Well-drained sandy loam soil is best suited for the crop.

 

Varieties:

Pus a Kesar, Nantes, Pusa Meghali

 

Planting requirements:

Seed rate is 5-6 kg/ha. It is usually sown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 _m height are made 45 cm apart and seeds sown 10 cm apart on the rows: 'The seed is mixed with fine sand and sown in rows by hand and covered with soil to make it firm around it.

 

Manures and fertilizers:

Apply 25 t/ha FYM before sowing and a fertilizer dose of 37.5 kg N, 62.5 kg P20S and 50 kg K2O / ha as basal. Topdressing with 37.5 kg N / ha may be done one month after sowing.

 

After cultivation:

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed

germination and growth of plant. Uproot excess seedlings (thinning) three weeks after sowing leaving a plant to plant spacing of 10 Cm to facilitate better tuber growth. Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down the weeds. Shallow hoeing is necessary to - facilitate root growth. When the root starts growing, earthling up should be done.

 

4. BEET ROOT (Beta vulgaris)

 

Beet root can be grown in high ranges from August to January. Well-drained sandy loam soils are best suited for the crop.

 

Varieties: Detroit Dark Red and Imperator

 

Planting requirements:

Seed rate is7 to 8 kg/ha. It is usually grown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 cm height are formed 45 cm apart and seeds sown15-20 cm apart on the rows. The seeds are mixed with fine sand and placed in rows by hand and covered with soil to make -it firm around it.

 

Manures and fertilizers:

Apply FYM 20 t/ha as basal. N:P2Os:K2O 75:37.5:37.5 kg/ha is recommended. Full dose of P20S and K2O and half dose of N are applied as basal. Remaining half dose of nitrogen is applied as topdressing when the plant starts growing vigorously.

 

After cultivation

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed

generation and growth of plant. Thinning the population may be done as in carrot. Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down the weeds. Shallow hoeing is necessary to facilitate root growth. When the root starts growing, earthling up should be done.

 

5. RADISH (Raphanus sativus)

 

Radish can be grown in high ranges .from June to January. Well drained sandy loam soils are best suited for the crop.

 

Varieties:

Japanese White, Arka Nishanth, Pusa Chethki, Pus a Reshmi, Pusa Desi and Bombay Red Long.

 

Planting requirement:

Seed rate is 7 to 8 kg per hectare. It is usually grown on ridges to facilitate good root production. Ridges of about 20 cm height are taken 45 cm apart and plants are grown 10 cm apart on the rows. The seed is mixed with fine sand and sown in rows by hand, covered with soil to make it firm around it.

 

Manures and fertilizers:

Apply 20 t/ha FYM as basal. N: P20S: K2O 75:37.5:37.5 kg/ha is the fertilizer requirement. Full dose of P2Os and K2O and half dose of N are applied as basal. Remaining half dose of nitrogen is. applied as topdressing when the plant starts growing vigorously.

 

After cultivation:

It is necessary that enough soil moisture is available to help uniform seed germination and growth of plant. Thinning may be done at 10 cm distance as in carrot. Weeding should be done at regular intervals to keep down weeds. Shallow hoeing is necessary to facilitate root growth. When the

roots start growing, earthling up should be done.

 

6. POTATO (Solanum tuberosum).

 

Potato can be successfully cultivated in the high ranges of Kerala. It is being cultivated in the rain shadow areas of Idukki district throughout the year. A day temperature of 20-30°C is optimum for growth and tuberisation in potato. Tuber formation is adversely affected, if the temperature goes above 30°C.

 

Season

Crops can be raised as shown below in the eastern part of Idukki district.

Suml1ler:Autumn:Spring:March-April

August-December January-February

 

Varieties

Among the high yielding varieties, Kufri Jyothi (early), Kufri Muthu (medium), and Kufri Dewa (late) can be tried in the high ranges of Kerala.

Soil Loose friable sandy loam or silt loam, rich in organic matter are ideal for potato. Hard clay should be avoided. Optimum pH range is 5.2-7.0.

 

Planting:

Whole potato tuber or cut pieces (50-60 g size)' longitudinally cut from bud-end to stem-end can be used for plating. For planting I ha, 1000-2000 kg seed tubers are required. Seed tubers are treat_d with I ppm of GA 3 for one hour and then dried in shade for getting uniform sprouting. Tubers are filled in gunny bags after drying and kept in vertical position in well-ventilated dark room for 10 days for encouraging sprouting. Seed pieces should be treated with mancozeb (@ I kg in 450 litres ofwater)

before planting to protect them from soil borne diseases.Tubers can be planted on ridges 50-60 cm wide at a spacing of 15-20 qn between

the plants. Earthing up is needed during the growing phase (30 days after planting) and 70 days after planting.

 

Manuring:

A basal application of FYM (20 t/ha) is required during field preparation. Apply 60 kg N, 100 kg PzOs and 120 kg KzO as basal. Topdressing with 60 kg N, 30 days after planting at the time of first earthling up is essential.

 

Plant protection:

Early blight and late blight are the important fungal diseases. Spraying zineb (2 g per 11 litre of water) is effective to control early blight. Copper fungicides can control late blight. Cut worms, aphids and jassids are common p_sts of potato. Dusting with carbaryl 10 % DP immediately after planting can control cut worms. Spraying endosulfan/pesticides @ 1.5 ml per litre controls leaf eating caterpillars. To control aphids and jassids spraying metasystox or dimethoate (I ml per litre) is effective.

 

7. GARLIC (Allium sativum)

 

Garlic requires cool and moist period during vegetative growth and a dry spell during maturity of the bulbs. Fertile, well-drained loamy soils are ideal for garlic cultivation. Heavy clay soils may result in deformed bulbs. In high ranges of Kerala garlic can be 'planted during October-November.

 

Varieties:

Ooty-I, G 50

 

Planting requirements:

Cloves or bulbils are used for propagation. For planting one hectare, 500 kg of cloves is required. The cloves for planting should be stored for 2-3 months after harvest and cloves weighing 4 g are ideal for planting. The cloves should be soaked in water followed by dipping for 15 minutes in a solution containing I ml of dimecron and I g of carbendazim dissolved in I litre of water for 15 minutes. After drying in shade, cloves can be used for planting. Dig the land thoroughly and prepare beds of 15 cm height at a width of I m and of con venient length. The cloves should be dibbled at a spacing of 15 x 8 cm. Germination will start on the fifth day and it will be completed within 10-15 days.

 

Manuring:

Apply N:PzOs: K2O @, 60:120:120 kg/ha 20 days after transplanting (DAP).Topdressing of N should be done @ 60 kg/ha, 45 OAP.

 

After cultivation .

 

Earthling up should be done 60 qAP

 

Plant protection

To control thrips and foliar nematode, spray I ml of dimecron dissolved in I litre ofwater. To control blast, spray mancozeb (2 g/litre ).

 

Harvest

Harvesting can be done 120-130 OAr.Yield may vary from 5-10 t/ha.

 

MINOR VEGETABLES

 

Dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus)

 

Pusa Early Prolific and Arka Vijay are the common pole and bush varieties, respectively. Pole varieties are sown in pits (three plants per pit) at a spacing of 1.25 x 0.75 m and bush varieties in ridges and furrows at a

spacing of 60 x 15 cm. Seeds are to be sown during July-August. The plants are trailed over pandals, trellis or stakes. FYM is applied at the rate of 20 tlha. N:P2Os:KzO recommendation for the crop is 50: 100:50 kglha. The leaf caterpillar is a common pest of the crop. It is also affected

by Fusarium wilt, collar rot, anthracnose and powdery mildew. Average yield is 6-10 tfha.

 

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

 

The common varieties in use are Revathy, PT-62, PT-16, PT-49 and PT-2. Seeds at the rate of 15 to 20 kgfha are planted at a spacing of 125 x 50 cm during August-September and are trailed over pandal, trellis or stakes. FYM is applied at the rate of 20 t/ha. N, P2Os and K2O recommendation for the crop is 50: 100:50 kgfha. The crop is comparatively free from pests and diseases. A verage yield is 10-15 tfha.

 

Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

 

Pusa Naubahar and Pusa Sadabahar are the common varieties. Seeds at the rate of 10 to 12 kgfha are planted at a spacing of 45_6Q x 20-30 cm in February-March and June-July. During rainy season, the s_eds are sown 2-3 cm deep on ridges and in furrows during summer months. FYM is applied at the rate of 25 tfha. N, P2Os and K2O recommendation for the crop is 20:60:80 kgfha. Aphids and powdery mildew are the common pest and disease of the crop. Average yield is 5 to 6 t/ha. .

 

Sword bean (Canavalia spp)

 

There are two types of sword bean based on seed color. White seeded

varieties. are bushy in nature whereas red seeded varieties are trailed over pandals. Pole type varieties are to be planted at a spacing of 4 x 3 m whereas bush type varieties are to be planted at 60 x 60 em. May-June and September-October are the usual sowing tiller  and the seed rate followed is one or two seeds per pit. FYM is applied at the rate of

5 t/ha. The N:P2Os: K2O mixture (7:10:5) may be applied as basal dose and top dressing at several splits. There is no serious pest or disease incidence in the crop.Average yield is 10-15 kg per plant.

 

Clove bean (Ipomoea muricata)

 

The crop can be grown throughout the year and are trailed over trellis or stakes. The seeds @ 6-7 kgfha are planted at a spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. FYM is applied at the rate of 10 tfha. N:P2Os:K2O recommendation

for the crop is 35:50:25 kgfha. There is no serious pest' or disease incidence in the crop. A verageyield is 5-6 tfha.

 

Little gourd (Cocciniagrandis)

 

Local varieties are grown in May-June and September-October by trailing over pandals and stakes.. Stem cuttings with three or four nodes and 30-40 em length, selected from high yielding female vines, are used as planting material. These are planted at a spacing of 4 x 3 m. Farm yard manure at the rate of 25 kg per pit is given in two doses. No serious pests or diseases are re ported except mild attack of fruit flies and gall insects.

 

Smooth gourd (Luffa cylindrica)

 

Pusa Chickni is the common variety in use. The crop is planted in February-March and May-June at a spacing .of 2 x 2 m. The seed rate is 2.5-3 kgfha. The crop is trailed over pandal, stakes or trellis. FYM at the rate of 25 tfha is given in two doses.N:P2Os:K2O recommended for the crop is 70:25:25 kgiha. No serious pests or diseases are re ported. The average yield is 10-15 t/ha.

 

Ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula)

 

The important varieties are Haritham, Pusa Nasdhar and Co-2. The crop is usually sown during February-March and May-June. Seed rate recommended is 2.5-3.0 kgiha with a spacing of 2 x 2 m. FYM @ 25 t/ha and N:P2Os:K2O @ 70:25:25 kgiha are recommended. It is usually trailed over pandals or trellis. Average yield is 10 to 15 t/ha.

 

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum)

 

Hungarian Wax, California Wonder and Early Calwonder are the promising varie ties. Plant the crop during September October at a spacing of 60 x 30 em. The seed rate is 400-600 gfha. Raising of seed lings, transplanting, irrigation etc. are same as in chilli. FYM at the rate of 25 t/ha and N:P2Os:K2O @ 150:75:50 kglha are to be given. The average yield is 12-15 t/ha.

 

Drumstick (Moringa oleifera)

 

The major planting season is May-June. Stem cuttings of 1.0-1.5 m length and 15-20 cm girth are used as planting material. Plant the cuttings in polybags and later sprouted cuttings can be shafted to main field. For one hectare 62S cuttings are required. These are planteci at a spacing of 4 x 4 m. FYM at the rate of 10-20 kg per pit and N: P2Os:K2O @ 60:80:40 g per pit are recommended. Green caterpillar and hairy caterpillar are the common pests. The average yield is 10-15 kg per tree per year.

 

Chekkurmanis (Sauropus androgynus)

Stem cuttings of 6-12 months old, 20-30 cm length are to be planted in May-June.These are usually grown on borders of kitchen gardens. To check the height of the plant and to get frequent harvests, the tips are clipped off intermittently. FYM at the rate of 5 kg per plant per year and N:P2Os:K2O (7:10:5) mixture @ 30 g per plant are recommended. The

average yield is 2-5 kgl_l per year.

 

Indian spinach (Basella sp.)

 

Seeds or stem cuttings of 20-30 cm length are to be planted during May-June and September-October. The spacing recommended is I m x 0.6 m. These are usually trailed over pandals or stakes. FYM at the rate of 2-5 kglm2 is to be given. The average yield is 1-2.5 kg/m2.

 

Water leaf (Talinum triangulaTe)

This is a shade loving leafy vegetable grown in May-June and September-October.Semi hard stem cuttings of 10-15 cm length are planted at a spacing of 30 x 10 cm. FYM at the rate of 2-5 kglm2 is given. The average yield is 2.0-2.5 kg/m2.

 

Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii)

It is usually planted in May-June. Root suckers are used as planting material. The recommended spacing is 4 x 4 m with 625 plants per hectare. FYM atthe rate of 10 kg per plant per year is given. N:P2Os:K2O @ 60:80:40 g per adult plant per year is recommended. Major pests are citrus butterfly and psyllid. Diaphorina pink disease is also seen. The average yield is 2-2.5 kg/m2.

 

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