PLANT A TREE:


Take a new resolution on coming June 5th to save the trees.

 

World Environment Day celebrations have been hosted in the following cities:

Year        Theme                    Host city


1974-  Only one Earth


1975- Human Settlements


1976- Water: Vital Resource for Life


1977- Ozone Layer Environmental Concern   Lands Loss and Soil Degradation.


1978- Development Without Destruction


1979-Only One Future for Our Children -        Development Without Destruction


1980-A New Challenge for the New Decade: Development Without Destruction


1981-Ground Water; Toxic Chemicals in Human Food Chains


1982-Ten Years After Stockholm (Renewal of Environmental Concerns)


1983-Managing and Disposing Hazardous Waste: Acid Rain and Energy


1984-Desertification


1985-Youth: Population and the Environment


1986-A Tree for Peace


1987-Environment and Shelter: More Than A Roof Nairobi, Kenya


1988-When People Put the Environment First, Development Will Last Bangkok, Thailand


1989-Global Warming; Global Warning Brussels, Belgium


1990-Children and the Environment Mexico City, Mexico


1991-Climate Change. Need for Global Partnership Stockholm, Sweden


1992-Only One Earth, Care and Share Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


1993-Poverty and the Environment - Breaking the Vicious Circle Beijing, People's Republic of China


1994-One Earth One Family London, United Kingdom


1995-We the Peoples: United for the Global Environment Pretoria, South Africa


1996 Our Earth, Our Habitat, Our Home Istanbul, Turkey


1997 For Life on Earth Seoul, Republic of Korea


1998 For Life on Earth - Save Our Seas Moscow, Russian Federation


1999 Our Earth - Our Future - Just Save It! Tokyo, Japan


2000 The Environment Millennium - Time to Act Adelaide, Australia

 
2001 Connect with the World Wide Web of Life Torino, Italy and Havana, Cuba


2002 Give Earth a Chance Shenzhen, People's Republic of China


2003 Water – Two Billion People are Dying for It! Beirut, Lebanon


2004 Wanted! Seas and Oceans – Dead or Alive? Barcelona, Spain


2005 Green Cities – Plan for the Planet! San Francisco, United States


2006 Deserts and Desertification - Don't Desert Drylands! Algiers, Algeria


2007 Melting Ice – a Hot Topic? Tromsø, Norway


2008 Kick The Habit - Towards A Low Carbon Economy Wellington, New Zealand


2009 Your Planet Needs You - UNite to Combat Climate Change Mexico City, Mexico


2010 Many Species. One Planet. One Future Kigali, Rwanda


2011 Forests: Nature at your Service New Delhi, India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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TREE

 

World Environment Day, commemorated on 5 June since 1972, is one of the ways in which the United Nations focuses world attention on the environment and encourages political action. Since its inception, hundreds of thousands of people from countries all over the world have mobilized for individual and organized environmental action. Activities involve all sectors of society – governments, non- and inter-governmental organizations, businesses, industries, civil society, media and schools.

 

This year’s theme is “Forests:Nature at your Service". It closely raise awareness of the vital importance of the millions of species that inhabit our planet’s soils, forests, oceans, coral reefs and mountains. These complex intertwined systems and processes collectively provide our food, water and the air we breathe – the basic fundamentals of life. Biodiversity is also the foundation for agriculture and, together, both are crucial for maintaining and improving food security.

 

It’s an opportunity to do something great for our country, your health and your planet. Take a new resolution on coming June 5th to save the trees. www.nysonsunny.com is promoting this effort by completely developed this website by using Green Theme. A special webpage demonstrating  the importance of planting Trees and schedules of World Environment Day activities were also included for online web awareness to the world.

 

 

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  •  REASONS TO PLANT A TREE

    TREES CLEAN THE AIR:

  • Trees help cleanse the air by intercepting airborne particles, reducing heat, and absorbing pollutants such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.


  • TREES ARE EFFECTIVE SOUND BARRIERS:

  •  Trees are as effective as stonewalls in stopping sound. They muffle urban noise almost as effectively as stonewalls. Trees, planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house, can mitigate major noises from crowded roads, railway stations and airports.


  • TREES PRODUCE OXYGEN:

  •  A mature leafy tree, in a few months, produces as much oxygen as that required by 10 people for one year.


  • TREES BECOME DUSTBINS FOR HARMFUL GASES:

  • A tree absorbs and locks away carbon dioxide, and other harmful gases which warm the environment. An urban forest is a carbon storage area that can lock up as much carbon.


  • TREES SHADE AND COOL:

  •  Shade from trees reduces the need for fan, coolers and air conditioning in summer. Studies have shown that parts of cities without cooling shade from trees can literally be "heated islands," with temperatures as much as 4-6 degrees Celsius higher than surrounding areas. In winter, trees break the force of winter winds.


  • TREES ACT AS WINDBREAKS:

  • Trees break the force of the wind. This protects houses, farmland and vegetation.


  • TREES FIGHT SOIL EROSION:

  • Trees fight soil erosion, conserve rainwater, and reduce water runoff and sediment deposit after storms.


  • TREES CONTROL DUST LEVELS:

  •  Trees help in lowering the dust levels and pollution levels in the cities.


  • TREES DECREASE RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS:

  •  Children staying in areas and localities with trees have much less breathing problems that children staying in localities which have no trees.

 RECOMMENDED TREES  TO PLANT

Common name

Malayalam name

Botanical name

Family

Teak

Thekku

Teetana grandis

Verbenaceae

Jungle jack/Aini

Anjili

Artoearpus hirsutus

Moraceae

Indian rose wood

Eetty

Oalbergla latifolia

Fabaceae

Jack Tree

Plavu

Artocarpus

Moraceae

Mango Tree

Mavu

Mangifera indica

Anacardiaceae

Banana Tree

Vazha

Musa spp.

Musaceae

Papaya

Pappakka

Carica papaya

Caricaceae

Apple

Apple

Ananas comosus

Bromeliaceae

Rubber Tree

Rubber

Hevea brasiliensis

Euphorbiaceae

Ebony

Karimaram

Diaspyros ebenum

Ebenaceae

Tree of Heaven

Perumaram

Ailanthus excelsa

Simaroubaceae

Sain/Laurel

Karimaruthu

Terminalia erenulata

Combrentaceao

Kindal

Vellamaruthu

Tpaniculata

Combrentaceae

Gurjun

Vella Ayani

Dipteroearpus indieus

Dipterocarpaceae

Iron wood tree

Kadamaram

Xylia zylocarpa

Mimosaceae

Venteak

Venthekku

Lagerstroemia mieroearpa

Lythraceae

Siris

Vaka

Albizia lebbeek

Fabaceae

Yellow teak

Manja Kadambu

Haldina cordifolia

Rubiaceae

Ekadania

Mulluvenga

Bridelia squamosa

Euphorbiaceae

Mahogany

Mahagany

Swietenia mahogani

Meliaceae

Bead tree

Manjadi

Adenanthera pavonina

Mimosacea

Dita bark

Yezhilam pala

Alstonia scholaris

Apocynaceae

 

 

GUIDELINES FOR PLANTING TREES (Ad hoc recommendation)

 

TEAK (Teetana Grandis)

 

Teak is the paragon among Indian timbers. It is a large tree that attains a height more than 30 mtr. Teakwood is extensively used in construction, for making door/window shutters and frames, furniture, cabinets, railway coaches and wagons, and ship/boat building. It is an ideal wood for parquet and decorative flooring and excellent wood for wall paneling. The species is indigenous to India and the Southeast Asian region. In India teak is distributed naturally in the peninsular region. It prefers a warm moist tropical climate with mean annual precipitation of 1100-2000 mm and a well-drained fertile soil. Being a strong light demander it does not tolerate overcrowding and does not withstand water logging.
 

Propagation

Seeds (fallen fruits) should be collected from vigorously growing middle-aged trees characterized by straight boles, desirable branching habit, good form and less fluting. Freshly fallen intact fruits with inflated calyx from such trees can be collected during December-February. The ground must  be  cleared before hand  by removing  litter and  other  materials to
facilitate seed collection. After cleaning and drying the seeds may be safely stored in gunny bags or sealed containers. Seeds of diameter greater than 9 mm are usually collected. For convenience in storage and transport, the bladder like calyx of the fruit is removed. This is done by half-filling a bag with the fruits and vigorously rubbing and shaking it or by beating with sticks, after which the remains of the calyces are separated from the nuts by winnowing. Due to hard seed coat, germination of one-year old seeds is better than that of fresh seeds.

Pre-sowing seed treatment


1. Wetting during night followed by drying in the sun. Repeat for two to three weeks. 2. Termite feeding: Spread the teak fruits on the ground in a 5 cm layer immediately after collection. After about five weeks the termites remove the exocarp and subsequent germination after alternate wetting and drying is found to be better.

Nursery practices


Raised beds (30 cm high, supported with split areca stems) of 10 x 1 m are formed. Sand and soil mixed with farmyard manure form the top layer. Sowing is done after the bed is watered. Usually the sowing is done by broadcast method or dibbling in April-May. Seed rate is 3-5 kg of seeds per bed. After sowing, the seeds may be pressed into the beds. A thin layer of soil also can be sprinkled to cover the seeds. The beds are also mulched with green leaves to reduce evaporation losses. The bed is then dusted with carbaryl 10% to prevent insect attack.


One-year-old seedlings of 1-2 cm (thumb thickness) at the thickest portion below the collar are removed from mother beds and used for making stumps. Stumps with 15-20 cm of root at 2-3 cm of stem prepared with sharp knives are commonly used for planting. Teak seedlings can be produced in shorter duration by using polythene bags or root trainers. Three to four month old teak seedlings are pricked out from the germination beds into polythene bags (30 cm x 20 cm) in the month of March- April. Three month-old root trainer seedlings are also popular, of late.

Planting


With the pre- monsoon showers, stump planting is done in crowbar holes during April-May (four to six week before the onset of regular monsoons). The site must be cleared of stubble or other competing vegetation, if any. If containerized planting stock (polybags, root trainer) is used, then optimal time of planting may be after the onset of southwest monsoon in June-July. They are usually planted in pits of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm. Spacing recommended for monspecific woodlot is 2 m x 2 m. However, if intercrops are proposed to be raised, then rowto-row distance can be altered. For one or two row strip plantings at farm boundaries, a closer
plant-to-plant spacing of 1 m could be employed.

Weeding and fertilization


Six or seven weeding may be necessary during the first two years. Teak is very susceptible to weed competition. Fertilizers may be applied @ 30-40 g N, 15-20 g P2Os and 15-20 g K2O per plant per year from the second year to the fifth year and thereafter once in three to four years
for 10-12 years. In agro forestry situations, if the intercrops are fertilized, the quantities of chemical fertilizers applied to teak can be proportionately reduced or even skipped. Providing life-saving irrigation during the summer season favors teak growth.

Thinning.


For a fifty-year rotation, monospecific teak plantation on a good site (initial spacing 2 m x 2 m), thinning may be carried out at 4, 8, 12, 18, 26 and 36 years after planting. Thinning in short rotation (25-30 years) high input plantations can be at 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. The thumb rule governing thinning is that trees should not be allowed to compete with each other for site resources, as intense competition may depress teak growth. Therefore, considering the site characteristics , tree growth rate and merchantability of the thinned out materials, a flexible thinning schedule can be adopted. A teak density management diagram can be used for this purpose. In general thinning is delayed on poor sites.

Mixed plantations


Fruit/spice/medicinal trees can be successfully intercropped with teak throughout its growth. Additionally, inclusion of nitrogen fixing trees such as Gliricidia or Leucaena (subabul) either in alternate rows or every third row not only improves teak growth but also saves chemical nitrogenous fertilizers. However, manage (by lopping or pruning) the nitrogen fixing tree component in such a way that it does not compete with teak for light.

Pests, diseases and their control


White grubs feed on roots in the nursery. Apply phorate lOG or carbofuran 3G @ two teaspoon full mixed with fine sand. Vascular wilt disease (Burkholderia solanacearum) is noticed in nursery and young plantations. As preventive measures against this disease, maintain proper drainage and avoid root injury. Leaf spot disease (Phomopsis sp. and Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides) in nursery and young plantations can be controlled by mancozeb 0.05% or carbendazim 0.05% application. Against pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) in young plants, apply Bordeaux paste.Defoliators (Hyblaea purea) and skeletonisers (Eutectona machaeralis) can be controlled by quinalphos 25 EC 0.05% spray.However, only in small plantations / woodlots chemical control through insecticide spray  is
advocated. For controlling stem borer (Sahyadrassus malabaricus) apply 0 0.2% quinalphos at the site of infection after removing the frass. A void injury to root and collar to prevent bud rot and heart rot occurrence. Cut and remove the parasitic plants (Dendrophthoe falcata var.pubescells) before fruiting.
 

Manures and fertilizer:

 

Apply 25 t/ha FYM or compost. Fertilizer dose is N:P2Os:K2O 150:100:125 kg/ha. Apply  full dose  of  P2Os  and half  dose of  N  and  K2O before, transplanting. Apply remaining half dose one month after transplanting.

 

After cultivation:

 

A continuous supply of moisture is necessary for proper development of heads. Very shallow hoeing should be done to remove weeds and to make the soil better aerated. In order to produce large heads; earth up plants one month after transplanting.

 

WILD JACK OR AINI (Artocarpus hirsutus)


Ideally suited for boundary planting and for as scattered trees on the fann field. Seeds or wildings (scattered seedlings found profusely on the fann fields) can be collected during the monsoon season and planted at the desired spots in the field. On fann boundaries, closer plant to-plant spacing (I m) can be adopted.

Agricultural systems


Shade loving crops such as ginger perform better in the inter-spaces of tree species such as ailanthus (at four years of age, planted at a spacing of 2 x 2 m; with 60% of the light in the open).Multipurpose tree species like ailanthus, teak, vellapine, silver oak and green manure yielding trees can be successfully inter planted in the older coconut plantation (preferably above 30 years of age), often in association with other field crops including medicinal plants such as kacholam. Depending on the space available (between coconut palms), one or two rows of multipurpose trees can be accommodated in the middle (spacing 1-2 m between plants). Tree management such as lopping I pollarding etc. is important to prevent any possible inter specific competition between the multi-purpose tree component and the coconut palms.

 

JACK (Artocarpus Heterophyllus)


Jack comes up well in humid regions up to an elevation of 1000 m. Soil should be deep and well drained. Any rise in water table or poor aeration of the soil is detrimental to the crop.


Varieties / Types


Jackfruit differs in size, shape and quality. The jackfruit may be classified into two groups: (i) soft fleshed and (ii) firm fleshed. The firm fleshed type is highly tasty, sweet and crisp. The two groups are further classified depending on the taste, size of fruit, ordure of flesh, nature, shape and diversity of prickles on the rind.


Two distinct types with desirable qualities recommended for Kerala are:
 

I. Muttom varikka which is a firm fleshed, sweet scented variety.
2. Singapore or Srilanka jack which is an introduced variety from Srilanka. It bears fruits in 3 years after planting and is extremely precocious in habit. The fruits are more or less the same size as the common jackfruit. A tree may yield as many as. 250 fruits.


Planting materials

Use seedlings or grafts for planting. For grafting, raise seedlings in polythene bags and when they are 9-12 months old do inarching. One month after grafting, behead the rootstock above the graft joint. Epicotyl grafting can be undertaken successfully in jack. Three to four month old, 10 cm long scions are grafted on five-day old rootstocks in polythene bags by the cleft method during the month of June and kept under moist conditions. The scions should be pre cured 10 days before grafting by clipping the leaf blades and keeping the petioles intact on the twig. The graft union is complete by 80 days after grafting operations.


Season


Plant seedlings or one year old grafts at the onset of monsoon showers.


Planting.

 

Prepare pits of size 60 x 60 x 60 cm at a spacing of 12-15 m. Refill pits with mixture of topsoil and 10 kg compost or FYM per pit to a level higher than the adjoining ground. Plant the grafts in the same depth as they were in the containers, preferably in the late evening. Deep planting results in poor growth of the graft. Ensure that the graft joint is above the soil level. Stake the plants to prevent snapping at the graft joints. Excellent drainage and adequate watering result in better performance. At no stage it should be exposed to drought or frost. It is useful to provide some protection, especially to young trees. Jack is rarely manured. Even without fertilizer application, the jack trees come up well under Kerala conditions.


Harvesting


The seedling plants generally bear after eight years and the grafted plants after three years of planting. The fruiting season lasts about four months from January-February to May-June. The average yield from one tree is about 50-100 fruits per year.


Plant protection


The important pests of jack are shoot borer caterpillar, mealy bug and jack scale.


1. To control shoot borer caterpillars spray with any contact insecticide.
2. To control jack scale apply contact insecticide.
3. To control mealy bug, spray contact insecticides like lime sulphur or dust sulphur.


The common diseases that attack the tree are the pink disease, stem rot and fruit rot. Pruning of affected plants and protecting the cut-ends with Bordeaux paste are recommended against these diseases.

MANGO (Mangifera indica)


Mango is adaptable to a wide (aIlge of climate and soil conditions and grows well from sea level up to about 1500 m above mean sea level. It withstands both fairly dry conditions and heavy rainfall.


Varieties
Alphonso, Kalapady, Neelum, Mundappa, Pairi, Benishan, Alampur Benishan, Mulgoa, Suvarnarekha.


Hybrids
Hybrid No.45 (Bennet Alphonso x Hima yuddin), Hybrid No.8? (Kalapady x Alampur Benishan), Hybrid No.151 (Kalapady x Neelum)


Season
Plant one year old grafts with the onset of monsoon showers so that they get established before the rains. If rainfall is heavy, planting should be done during August September.


Vegetative propagation


Stone grafting is successful in mango. August is ideal for the operation. Select four month old scion materials. Defoliation of scion shoots 10 days prior to grafting is beneficial. Grafting of 8 cm long scion on rootstocks at
a height of 6 to 8 cm is most successful. The dieback disease of grafts caused by Colletotrichum can be controlled by spraying 1 % Bordeaux mixture.


Planting


Select good grafts for planting. Planting can be done according to the square system or hexagonal system. Prepare pits of size 1 x I x 1 m at a spacing of 9 m one month before planting and allow to weather. Refill pits
with mixture of topsoil and 10 kg of compost or FYM per pit to a level higher than the adjoining ground. Plant the grafts at the same depths as they were in the containers, preferably in the late evening. Deep planting results in poor growth of the plant. Ensure that the graft joint is above the soil level. Tie the plants to stakes to prevent snapping at the graft joints.


Manuring


Apply FYM/compost and fertilizers at the rate indicated below:
Age Dlplant N:P]Oj:K]O (g/plant/year)
20: 18:50 50:27:75 100:36:100 250: 172:200 400:144:400 500:360:750
1st year 2nd year 3-5 years 6-7 years 8-10 years Over 10 years FYM kg/plant/year 10 15 25 40 50 75


Green leaves (25 kg/plant) and wood ash (10-15 kg/plant) may be applied additionally. Apply organic manures in May-June with the onset of monsoon. Apply the fertilizers in one dose during May-June until bearing stage and thereafter in two equal split doses, the first during May-June and the second during August-September. Apply manures and fertilizers in trenches 30 cm deep taken at a distance of 2.5 to 3 m from the base of the tree.


After cultivation


Irrigate twice a. week during summer months till the plants are 4-5 years old. Grow vegetables, horse gram, black gram, pineapple and banana as intercrops in young orchards. Carry out intercultural operations by ploughing or digging twice during the year in June and October. For reducing fruit drop and to improve productivity, NAA at 10-30 ppm concentration may be sprayed to the entire inflorescence at the pea stage in the second week after fruit set.


Plant protection


The important pests of mango are hoppers, stem borers, shoot midges, leaf  feeding  insects, fruit flies  and  psyllids. The  common  diseases.
are the powdery mildew, anthracnose and dieback. To control mango hopper, spray carbaryl 0.1 % or malathion 0.1 % at the time of flowering. To control mango stem borer, apply paste made of crude carbolic acid (130 ml),  soft soap  (1 kg) and  hot water  (3.7 litres)  to  holes  in t he
bark and  plug the holes. Alternatively, inject aluminium phosphide tablets into the burrows after chiselling the opening and widening the burrows with an auger. To control fruit fly, spray malathion 0.) % emulsion / suspension  containing  2% sugar.  Collect  and destroy  attacked  fruits
that rot and drop down. Fruit flies can be effectively managed by keeping Ocimlim trap @ 4 /tree and a bait spray of 0.1% malathion with 2% sugar at mo nthly intervals from initial fruit set up to harvest. To control the leaf feeding insects, apply carbaryl 0.1 %. To control shoot midge,which causes the drying of tender shoots, apply carbaryl 0.1 % or dimethoate 0.05% or phosphamidon 0.03%. Apply wettable sulphur for the control of powdery mildew and anthracnose. To control dieback of twigs and branches, cut the affected twigs below the infected .region and apply Bordeaux paste to the cut ends.

 

BANANA (Musaspp.)


Banana prefers tropical humid lowlands and is grown from the sea level to 1000 mabove MSL.It can also be grown at elevations up to 1200 m, but at higher elevations growth is poor. Optimum temperature is n°e. Soils with good fertility and assured supply of moisture are best suited.


Season
Rain fed crop: Irrigated crop: April-May August-September. Adjust planting season depending upon 19cal conditions. A void periods of heavy monsoon and severe summer for planting. Adjust the time of planting so as to avoid high temperature and drought at the time of emergence of bunches (7-8 months after planting).

Varieties


Nendran (Clones): Nedunendran, Zanzibar, Chengalikodan .Table varieties: Monsmarie, Robusta, Giant Governor, Dwarf Cavendish, Chenkadali, Poovan, Palayankodan, Njalipoovan, Amritsagar, Grosmichael, Karpooravally, Poomkalli, Koompillakannan; Chinali Dudhsagar), BRS-I and BRS-2 Culinary varieties: Monthan, Batheesa, Kanchekela, Nendrapadathy
Njalipoovan, Robusta, BRS-I and BRS-2 are particularly suitable for intercropping in coconut gardens both under rainfed and irrigated conditions Dudhsagar is highly resis tant to major pests and diseases. The variety Boldles Altafort is recommended for high range region (ad hoc).

Preparation of land


Prepare the field by ploughing or digging and dig pits for planting. Size of pits depends upon soil type, water table and variety. In general, pit size of 50 x 50 x 50 cm is recommended. In low-lying areas, take mounds for planting suckers.

Selection of suckers


Select 3A month old disease free sword suckers from healthy clumps. In the case of Nendran variety cut back pseudostem to a length of 15-20 cm. from corm and remove old roots. The rhizomes are to be smeared. with cow dung solution and ash and dried in the sun for about 3-4
days and stored in shade up to IS days before planting.

Spacing
Spacing may be provided as indicated be low: Variety Poovan Chenkadali Palayankodan Monthan Nendran Grosmichael Robusth, Monsmarie, Dwarf Cavandish

Spacing, m2.1 x 2.1 2.1 x 2.1 2.1 x 2.1 2.1 x 2.1 2.0 x 2.0 2.4 x 2.4

Planting


Plant suckers upright in the centre of pits with 5 cm pseudostem remaining above soil level. Press soil around the sucker to avoid hollow air spaces.

Manuring

1. Apply compost, cattle manure or green leaves at the rate of 10 kg/plant at the time of planting.

2. Apply N:PZO5:KzO at the following dose (g/plant/year).
Nendran (irrigat_d): 190:115:300

Other varieties depending upon soil fertility level:160-200:160-200:320-400

 

Palayankodan (rainfed): .1()0:200:400;Palayankodan Kuttanad) Plant crop: First ratoon: Second ratoon:(reclaimed alluvial soils of 100:200:400 150:200:800 150:200:800. Plant crop followed by two ratoon crops gives maximum yield. Two suckers per clump should be retained for ratooning. Apply the fertilizer 60-75 cm around the plant in two equal split doses; the first, two months after planting and the second, four months after planting. For ratoon crop, the entire fertilizers have to be applied in a single dose immediately after the harvest of the preceding crop. Irrigate immediately after manuring.

Note: For Nendran, apply the fertilizers in six split doses as- detailed below which will be beneficial to improve the finger size and bunch weight, provided the farmers can afford the cost of application.
 

Time of fertilizer application N:P}O5:K}O glpla/1t 40:65:60 30:50:60 30:00:60 30:00:60 30:00:60 One month after planting ;Two months after planting; Three months after planting Four months after planting Five months after planting Just after complete emergence of bunch. Total 30:00:00 190:115:300 169

For Palayankodan (rainfed), planting may be done in January and the suckers may be given pot irrigation @ nine liters of water once in 15 daysuntil April-May. After planting banana, sow sunn hemp / daincha / cowpea adopting a seed rate of 50 kglha. Incorporate the crop into the soil 40 days after sowing. Repeat sowing of green manure crop and incorporate into soil 40 days after sowing.

Irrigation
1. During summer months, irrigate once in three days.
2. Ensure good drainage and prevent water logging.
3. About 6-10 irrigations per crop may be given depending upon soil conditions.
4. Banana var. Nendran (October planting) grown under deep water table conditions (below 2m from ground level) needs 10 mm (40 l/plant) irrigation once in two days during summer season to ensure higher bunch yield and better water use efficiency. Mulching the basin with 3.5 kg paddy straw. (waste quality) will considerably improve the bunch )1ield.

Weed control


During early stages, complete control of weeds could be obtained by raising cowpea in the interspaces. In gardens where this is not possible, pre-emergence application of diuron 1.5 kglha or oxyfluorfen 0.2 kglha is effective. Weeds emerging later could be controlled by the application of paraquat 0.4 kglha or glyphosate 0.4 kg/ha. If hand weeding is resorted to, give 4-5 surface diggings depending on weed growth. A void deep digging. Do not disturb soil after plants start producing bunches. If green manure crop is grown, weeding operations can be reduced to 1-2 diggings. Remove side suckers produced till the emergence of bunch. Retain one or two suckers produced after the emergence of bunch.

Intercropping in Nendran variety Cucumber and amaranth can be cultivated profitably with banana raised in September October without affecting the bunch weight. For vegetable purpose, cucumber may be harvested within 95 days and for seed purpose the duration may be about 130 days. Greater yam and elephant foot yam can be profitably intercropped with Nendran.

PAPAYA (Carica papaya)


Papaya thrives well in tropical climate. . The occurrence of low temperature and frost limits its cultivation. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of papaya is 22-26°C. In Kerala, the limiting factors for commercial cultivation are high rainfall and severe drought in summer. However, this is best suited as a homestead fruit crop. The papaya prefers a rich, welldrained soil. It will not tolerate waterlogging around the trunk.


Varieties
Washington, Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Solo, Co-I, Co-2, Co-4, Pusa Nanha, Pusa Giant Co-2 and Co-5 are suitable for papain extraction.
 

Propagation
Papaya is propagated. almost entirely by seeds. . The best time for raising papaya seedlings is  from February to March. The seeds are sown in raised seedbeds of 2 x 1 m made 15 em above the ground level or in polythene bags. A mixture of sand, leaf mould and dried FYM is spread over the seedbed. The seeds are sown 2-3 em deep at a distance of 5 em in rows 15 cm apart. To raise seedlings for plahting in a hectare, 250 g seeds are required. Seedbeds should be watered daily, if there is no rain. Papaya seedlings raised in polythene bags can stand transplanting better than that raised in seedbeds. Polythene bags of :?O'x 15 em size and 150 gauge thickness are used as containers. They are filled with a mix-ture of FYM, soil and sand in equal proportions. Two seeds are sown in each bag and after germination, only one seedling is re tained.
Vegetative propagation by mound layering is also possible.

 

Planting
Two month old seedlings are transplanted in the main field in May-June at a spacing of 2 x 2 m. Pits of size 50 x 50 x 50 em are taken and filled with topsoil. Male plants are removed as soon as they flower and the female and hermaphrodite plants are re tained. In pure female plantations, one male plant is retained for every 10 female plants. Seedlings are shaded to protect them from excessive sunlight until they establish. In hermaphrodite or monoecious types male plants may not be required.
 

Manuring.
Organic manure may be applied at the rate of 10 to 25 kg / plant / year at the onset of  southwest monsoon in basins around the plant. Each papaya plant should also be supplied with40 g N, 40 g P2Os, and 80 g K2O at every two month interval.


Inter cultivation and intercropping


Keep the papaya plot free of weeds. Two hand-diggings, one in the beginning of the rainy season and another in January February are necessary. When papaya is grown as the main crop, vegetables can be profitably cultivated as intercrop for about six months from planting of
papaya seedlings.


Irrigation
The crop should be irrigated in summer. The ring system of irrigation is better for papaya than the basin system because the ring system prevents irrigation water coming into contact with the stem, thus preventing collar rot.


Harvesting
The seedlings flower and set fruit within 3-5 months after transplanting. The number of fruits harvested per tree per year varies from 25 to 30. Fruits showing streaks of yellow color are harvested. Although papaya trees bear flowers and fruits continuously for many years, it is not economical to retain the trees after 2.5 to 3 years.


Extraction of papain


Papain is an active enzyme present in the la tex or milky secretion of papaya plants and immature fruits. Half to three-fourth matured fruits (about 70 to 100 days from fruit set) are preferred for papain extraction. Tapping of fruits can be done early in the morning by giving longitudinal skin-depth incisions (0.3 cm) on the surface of the fruits from the stalk end to tip. Stainless steel blades or knives or bamboo splinters are used for incising papaya fruits. The milky latex is colleted in arecanut spathes or aluminium or glass vessels. The incisions are repeated in two or three subsequent occasions at 3 to 4 days intervals. The latex collected in this way is dried in the sun or in an artificial drier at 50-55°C. A small quantity of potassium me tabisulphite is added to the liquid latex to extend the storage We of papain. The dried latex can be stored in airtight polythene or glass containers for a period of six months. Tapped fruits are equally tasty as untapped fruits, although impaired in appearance.


Plant protection


Waterlogging and bad drainage are the chief contributing factors. Application of Bordeaux paste on the stem and soil drenching with Bordeaux mixture are control measures. Anthracnose; It causes premature fruit fall and leaf fall. To control, spray Bordeaux mixture 1%.Papaya mosaic and papaya leaf curl are two serious virus diseases of papaya. Remove the affected plants and bum them immediately.

APPLE (Malus sylvestris)


Apple is an important temperate fruit suited for growing in the high ranges of Kerala. Sloping sites to allow free drainage are considered more suitable than level tops. The ideal soil viz., loam, sandy loam and silt loam with open porous and well-drained subsoil suites apple.

Preparation of land
The planting distance in India varies from 7 -10m, depending upon the vigour of plant. The pit should be of 1 m wide and 20 cm deep so that all roots may be accommodated in a well spread condition.


Planting material
Apples are ordinarily propagated by budding or grafting on seedlings of Crab apple, Yellow Newton or Golden Delicious. Winters are best for whip grafting. Shield budding is done in June with the season's bud. Both whip grafting and shield budding are widely practiced in India.


Time and method of planting


Apples are planted in the ground free of weeds, regularly irrigated for about two years in the beginning. Planting is done late in winter. For adequate root development a temperature of 7°C is considered ideal.
 

Pruning


The pruning and training are important in apple cultivation. One-year-old plants are cut back at about 80-100 cm above ground. If branches are present at this time, only 4 to 5 of them ought to be retained and shortened in length. No shoot is retained below 50 cm from ground. At the time of first donnant pruning, the main scaffold branches are cut back to
about half a meter in length. Secondary branches arise trom these main limbs. Some of the new shoots arising early in the second summer are rubbed off in order to develop only a few vigorous secondary branches.
During the second donnant pruning, the crowded, misplaced or diseased secondary branches are removed and the extra vigorous ones headed back. This process is continued for 4 or 5 years, at the end of which there are 8 to 10 scaffold branches. It is desirable to add 100-150 g of nitrogen as sulphate of ammonia. Similar quantities of phosphate and potash should be added when required. Five quintals of bone meal and 10
quintals of woodish per hectare are given annually besides the fertilizers.. Fertilizers should be mixed with the soil at a radius of 1 m from the plant.


Thinning of fruit
Thinning of fruit is also practiced in order to improve fruit color and fruit size. It is desirable to retain one fruit for every 40 leaves. This spaces the fruit at about 15-20 cm apart and there will be only one fruit per spur.


Harvesting
Much of the success in apple production depends on proper picking, storage and disposal. When a fruit separates easily from the spur, firmness of flesh and taste are desirable. The harvested fruits may be stored for 120-150 days at 4-5°C provided there is good circulation pf air.

 

The Rubber Tree


Many plant species produce natural rubber. Considerations of quality and economics, however, limit the source of natural rubber to one species, namely Hevea brasiliensis. It is a native of the Amazon basin and introduced from there to countries in the tropical belts of Asia and Africa during late 19th century. It can be termed as the most far reaching and successful of introductions in plant history resulting in plantations over 9.3 million hectares, 95 per cent of it across the globe in Asia.

Rubber Tree is a quick growing, fairly sturdy, perennial tree of a height of 25 to 30 meters. It has a straight trunk and thick, somewhat soft, light brownish gray bark. The young plant shows characteristic growth pattern of alternating period of rapid elongation and consolidated development. The leaves are trifoliate with long stalks. The tree is deciduous in habit and winters from December to February in India. Refoliation is quick and copious flowering follows. Flowers are small but appearing in large clusters. Fruits are three lobed, each holding three seeds, quite like castor seeds in appearance but much larger in size. The seeds are oil bearing

Propagation of Rubber

Rubber seeds normally ripen during July-September when the seeds are collected and seedlings raised. All earlier plantations were raised from unselected seeds. The yield potential of these having been low, the production of those plantations was poor. Selection work on Hevea with a view to improving the planting materials and the introduction of vegetative propagation by budding led, in course of time, to the establishment of numerous valuable clones

To have a good plantation that gives a lot of latex, the planter must:

Look after the plantation before tapping; Look after the plantation after tapping;  Protect the rubber trees against diseases and insects.

To look after the plantation before tapping, you must:

Take good care of the trees; make clearings, that is, remove the less good trees, and those that have not grown well; look after the soil.

The trees must be: Disbudded; replaced where missing; pruned.

Disbudding

Disbudding means to remove buds that have grown. When the scion grows, it forms a stem; on this stem shoots appear. All the shoots up to a height of 3 meters from the ground must be removed. There will then be a fine trunk with branches only above 3 meters that will form the crown of the tree. (The crown is all the branches that grow from the trunk.)

Replacing missing trees

During the first year after planting, trees that have not grown must be replaced.

Pruning the trees

It may happen that a tree grows without forming a crown of branches at a height of 3 meters. In that case, cut the stem at this height, so that a crown of branches will form. If the crown is too dense, or if one part has more branches than another, it must be pruned 3 or 4 years after planting.

Making clearings

As some trees will die, and some will be ill, extra trees have been planted.
When tapping begins (5 years after planting), there must be 500 trees to the hectare; the trees should be 50 centimeters in circumference at a height of 1 meter from the ground. So from the second year after planting, some trees have to be removed. Remove about 30 trees every year during the second, third, fourth and fifth years.

In choosing what trees to remove, take account of the following:

Disease: diseased trees are the first to be removed; growth: take out all those that have grown badly; close neighbors: removal of trees should leave a regular plantation.

Looking after the soil

The rubber trees are planted in rows; between the rows of trees are ground cover plants. So you must look after the rows, and look after the ground between the rows. Looking after the rows of trees. They must be cultivated with the hoe, by hand, as follows:

In the year after planting, carry out one cultivation every 3 weeks; in the second and third year, one cultivation every month; in the fourth year, one cultivation every 6 weeks; in the fifth year, one cultivation every 2 months; in the sixth year, one cultivation every 3 months. If the dry season is very dry, the number of cultivations can be reduced. Weed killers can also be used, making an application every 3 or 4 months.

•Looking after the ground between the rows

The ground cover plant must be cut 3 or 4 times a year to a height of 30 or 40 centimeters. One cutting must be done before the dry season; the cut stems and leaves are used to mulch the rows. You must remove weeds such as Imperata (a herbaceous plant with hard, long, straight leaves and very long roots). You can pull up the Imperata by hand and then dig up the underground roots with a pick. If the plantation is well looked after before tapping, it will have fine trees when the time for tapping comes. But you must also take care of the plantation after tapping begins. Taking care of the plantation after tapping.

To keep the plantation in a good state after tapping has begun, you must: Go on removing unwanted trees; take good care of the soil. Removing unwanted trees. After about 12 years there should be about 350 trees to the hectare. There were 450 when tapping began.) Trees must be removed one year after tapping begins; three to four years after tapping begins; and in the twelfth year, so as to have 350 trees to the hectare.

•Care of the soil

By this time the rubber tree is full grown and covers the soil well, so that few plants grow beneath it. All the same, the soil must be kept clear at the base of the trees. The cover plants between the rows must be cut once a year. The terraces must be kept up, so that they do not crumble away. By looking after the plantation well, you will get fine trees. But you must not let them be attacked by diseases.

Protection against disease and insects The most serious disease is root rot. It destroys the roots and makes the tree die. The rubber tree may also be attacked by insects; they do less serious damage.

Control of disease of the roots

The tree may be attacked by white root rot (Fomes),which makes the roots rot. Then the tree dies. It is very important to see if white root rot has attacked a tree because, by the time you see that the tree is ill, it is too late.

Control of white root rot is carried out in two stages

1. Detecting the disease; during the first five years after planting, twice a year, you must get freshly cut grass and put it close up against the base of each tree. A fortnight later, look to see if there are little white threads on the trees underneath the dry grass. If you see little white threads, the tree is ill, it has white root rot. So you must treat it.

2. Second, Treatment of the disease

Dig a hole to uncover the roots of the tree, without injuring them. The hole should be 40 to 50 centimeters deep. If the roots have been attacked, the tree must be cut down and the roots taken out. If the roots have not been attacked, and there are only white threads on them, you put a special product on the tap-root and the beginnings of the side roots. This product is called quintozene.
 

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